How to Improve Your Use of Easels When Facilitating


The National Speakers’ Association once stated that the most important change speakers could make to be more effective would be to be more facilitative. By that they meant the use of interaction, solicitation, and capture of participants’ ideas. Whether you are a speaker, teacher, coach, or traditional facilitator, it is good to develop competence using easels, large Post-It® paper, and broad chiseled markers.  Here are some tips for you or your documentor. Paper continues to offer superior benefits to digital capture because most complex issues cannot be fully rendered or understood with one screen of bulleted items. Additionally, if it is not documented, it did not happen.

“Never use computer applications for something that you do not understand and cannot first do yourself.”
—Francis Webster Jr
 

Begin with good materials and supplies. Few things will frustrate an expert facilitator more than cheap paper and poor quality easels.  Most will carry their own, preferred markers. Large, Post-It style presentation sheets provide immediate and visual feedback to participants. Working with paper makes it faster to edit and refer to work that was drafted or completed earlier. When working with easel sized paper, consider the following tips:

  • Anticipate where sheets will be mounted. Be sensitive about everyone’s sight lines. Save your prime, center real estate for scrubbing and scoring ideas during each agenda step.
  • Banners or headlines provide an excellent opportunity for iconic support and color splash. They can be created in advance and when unveiled, connote a strong sense of preparation and importance.

    Easel Sample

  • Experts suggest using a minimum of three colors per sheet. Only use black or dark blue for primary content. Use red for edits and scoring, use green for linking, or edits (shows chronological shift).  Use lighter colors for grid lines, table lines, or illustrations.
  • Pre-drawn illustrations (in pencil or light marker) enable you to draw over thin lines with broad markers in the session as needed.
  • Rip, do not flip, completed pages. Participants need to see their prior work and a bunch of flipped sticky pages get caught up in a clump that is difficult to disentangle.
  • Save valuable real estate along the left hand column, defaulting to hyphens of indented items that may be further defined or scored during the analysis step with a prioritization tool.
  • Use flip chart graph paper with blueline squares to keep the size of writing consistent. Try out the size of the letters before the session to see if the person farthest away can read them. Capital letter should be two to three inches tall and lower case letters should be one to two inches in height.
  • Visual displays that are illustrative, iconic, and colorful are proven to stimulate participants and increase the quality of their contributions and feedback.
  • Wedge tips markers are best for writing and pointed tip markers are good for highlights. Use the broad side or flat edge of the wedge tip so that your writing is visible from six to eight meters.
  • You may speed up the capture process during the ideation step of Brainstorming by using two scribes (ie, documentors). Work this out in advance, and if relying on a participant for help, give him or her some time at the end to add his or her own ideas.

For additional and specific product recommendations, see your FAST Session Leader reference manual or refer to the Alumni Only resource section of our web site. Specifically, the document entitled Facilitator‘s Tool Kit lists many of the items that can be used to support more effective facilitation through the use of easels.

“The problem with digitizing brainstorming is that we don’t need to save what we brainstorm . . . The critical thing is the conclusion . . . The slick brainstorming capture tools . . . Will probably not be as successful as hoped. There are significant differences among collecting and processing and organizing, and different tools are usually required for them.” [pg 271] — David Allen, Getting Things Done
 

Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember friends, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Meeting Participation Tips (Part 3 of 3—The Wrap)


Great meetings include some repetitive characteristics.  A high level of participation frequently indicates the opportunity for a great meeting.  What encourages participation?

We share select characteristics with you through the sequence they would occur in a well-conducted meeting; namely the beginning, the middle, and the end (ie, The Wrap).  The following is not meant to be exhaustive, as substantial detail is also found in other blogs.  However, we find the following to rank among the most important items for inciting high levels of meeting participation, collaboration, and today’s focus—ownership.

Ending (aka Review and Wrap) Agenda Step

While meeting participation concludes with the wrap-up or close of each meeting, participation and ownership need to extend back to the project or the other reasons for holding the meeting in the first place.  For example, the term ‘plan’ can minimally be defined with four words—who does what, when.  Ownership of results is clearly important to truly call a meeting, successful.

Review Results

Encouraging Participation — The Wrap

As session leader (ie, frequently referred to as facilitator), conduct a thorough review of the agreed upon outputs.  Do not relive the meeting nor provide a transcription.  SImply focus on the final items of agreement, and not necessarily the rationale behind them.  Ensure that all can support them be enforcing that this is their last chance to speak up, they need to now agree to support the outputs, even if not their favorite, in the hallways and meeting rooms when they leave.  As professionals, you have every reason to expect them to either walk the talk or speak up.  It’s not your responsibility to reach down their throat and pull it out of them.  Ensure that they will both support the output, and not lose any sleep over it.

Assignments

Based on the expectations and culture of the participants, modify your roles and responsibilities tool to ensure accountability, responsibility, and support for action items that need to be assigned.  Demand that one and only one role accept responsibility since you do not want to allow for the pointing of fingers at the ‘other person.’  If you have followed the suggestions of the first two blogs in this series, assignments comes as no surprise and your participants have already considered whom they feel would be optimal for each of the action items. If necessary, remind them of the holarchial value of their assignments and how completion of the action items will impact their quality of life, income, workload, etc.  If no one steps up, assign it as on ‘open issue’ and escalate it back to the executive sponsor or his or her equivalent.

Refrigerator

Relevant items captured, typically beyond stop of the meeting, may also be assigned.  North Americans frequently refer to this category as the ‘Parking Lot.’  We prefer the term ‘Refrigerator’ to connote a sense of value, something that can be cooked up into a new meal, rather than a place where stuff goes to rust.  While covered in created detail in BLOG, do NOT ask, “Who will be responsible for this (ie, open item)?”  Rather, ask “Who will take the point of communications and report back to this group on the status of this (ie, open item)?” Again, if no one steps up, assign it as on ‘open issue’ and escalate it back to the executive sponsor or their equivalent.

Communications Plan

Ensure that your participants now sensibly and similarly communicate with others the results of the meeting.  Make sure it sounds like they were in the same meeting together.  Build consensus around “If you encounter your superior at lunch, and they ask you for an update, what will you tell them we accomplished in this meeting?”  Secondarily consider other stakeholders that may be affected by the meeting outputs, “If you encounter a stakeholder in the hallway, and they ask you for an update, what will you tell them we accomplished in this meeting?”  Do not underestimate the value of this activity.  Groups that claim to have consensus may discover based on their interpretation that significant difference remain.  The best time to resolve these differences is right now, before the meeting adjourns.

Self-Assessment

Ask them how you did and obtain their ownership over the fact that their input can help make you a better session leader.  To allow for anonymity, ask them to jot down on separate Post-it Notes, at least one aspect they liked and one aspect they would have changed for the meeting.  Have them mount their notes in a Plus/ Delta format as they exit the meeting, either using easel(s) or white board to label your titles.

=======

Encouraging meeting participation begins long before the meeting begins, and it extends beyond the meeting closure if you are concerned about culture, change management, or participation in your next meeting.  Their is no ‘silver bullet’ if you show up ill-prepared.  Consider the suggestions made over the past three blogs to help you secure higher levels of meeting participation.  We see these suggestions work and so will you.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the Solution, Improve Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Related articles

Five Ways to Facilitate Quiet People and Get Them to Participate More Fully


Please pardon the expression, but they say that a leopard cannot change his or her spots. While it is true that we are not going to convert quiet people into aggressive extroverts who dominate a meeting, there are steps that facilitators can take to transform the velocity of contributions from quiet people.

Interview Your Participants

It is so important, especially with quiet people, to establish a connection before the meeting. When you speak with participants in advance, transfer ownership of the deliverable by establishing the importance of their contribution. Emphasize the roles in a workshop, especially the protection of participants that is assured by the facilitator.

Break-out Sessions

Using break-out sessions gives quieter people permission to speak freely. When they assemble in smaller teams, they are better able to have a conversation with fewer people than needing to speak to a larger group. They discover that they are not a “lone” voice giving them increased confidence to speak on behalf of “our team,” when otherwise they might remain quiet.

Non-verbal Solicitation

Actively seek and beseech their input with open hands and eye contact. Let them know in advance that you understand their meek nature, but want to ensure that their input is not lost at critical and appropriate moments. Therefore, you intend to approach them with non-verbal signals to encourage their participation, with the absolute confidence that you will protect them by separating the value of their message from their personality. Emphasize that the facilitator protects the people first and then secures participants’ input because the content gathered is being assembled to serve the people, not the other way around.

Reinforce During Breaks

Constantly remind them (in private) that their input is important and valued. Reinforce your role as protector and ask them if they have avoided making a contribution when, perhaps, they should have spoken. Ask them if there is anything else that you can do, as facilitator, to make it easier for them to provide input.

Other Support

Other steps may be used when all else fails. Instead of a spoken round-robin, ask everyone to write down their ideas on Post-It notes or other paper so that you can gather their ideas anonymously. Consider asking a confederate (ie, another participant) to encourage their participation by specifically referring to the quiet person, stating that they “would like to here Meek’s opinion.” And finally, please add your discoveries and comments below for the benefit of others.

Remember friends, nobody is smarter than everybody. For detailed support, see your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

How to Analyze Brainstorming Input (continued)


We have covered some popular methods of analysis in other blogs. Here we look at framing the scope of arguments, projects, and programs, which demands more structure than can be afforded through simple discussion. While the framing tool has various names, and uses, it frequently is called “Is Not/ Is“. Faster to build than a context diagram, meetings that are designed to support projects, are best served by having or creating a frame that helps ensure consistent decision-making.

Purpose

To create a scoping statement—what may or may not be included in a field of work. It is best to begin with the “Is Not” (ie, OUT) items and then continue with what “It Is” (IN) items.

Rationale

Groups need a tool to help them stay focused and prevent drift. When the group agrees what something is, they should also test it by confirming what it is not.

Method

Various methods may be used to capture input, including the use of sub-teams, Post-It® notes, electronic submission, and off-line information gathering. Consider gathering input from multiple perspectives (see our Root Cause Analysis tool for other perspective suggestions). Frequently it is advisable to include framing analysis along with the Categorizing tool.  Frequently there are similar or redundant inputs that can be eliminated or chunked together.

Once the group feels comfortable with how they have categorized what is not or is part of the subject matter at hand, it can be helpful to convert the raw input into an articulate narrative paragraph. The final statement, or few sentences, serves as an appeal to later to see if something should be included or not (or applied to the frame itself as “uncertain” or even the Parking Lot as beyond immediate scope).

Let the group know that the statement can be modified later if they find it advisable, usually to sharpen the edges and make the scoping even clearer than the original. Most items should be IS NOT or IS but some items remain undecided until they are resolved or escalated to a sponsor or review board to decide.

“Shape clay into a vessel;
it is the space within that makes it useful.

Carve fine doors and windows,
but the room is useful in its emptiness.

The usefulness of what is
depends on what is not.”

— Wisdom of the Tao, Eleventh Verse

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the Solution, Improve Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

 

How to Facilitate Ideation Using the Brainstorming Tool


 

Encouraging and developing ideas is the easiest of the three activities required to operate the tool called “Brainstorming.” The other two activities include analysis and convergence (or, decision). Whether you use an easel or a spreadsheet, Post-it® notes or illustrated drawings, the first principle of brainstorming, as it was intended by Alex Osborne, is to encourage capturing lots of ideas without constraint or judgment. Most neophyte facilitators become the first person in the meeting to violate this principle by asking for definition or further explanation, such as “Tell us more about _____.”

Regardless of HOW you gather ideas, embrace the first principle we call “Ideation.” This first step of brainstorming can be reinforced with a discrete set of ground rules such as:

  • No discussion
  • Fast pacing, high-energy
  • All ideas allowed
  • Be creative—experiment
  • Build on the ideas of others
  • Suspend judgment, evaluation, and criticism
  • Passion is good
  • Accept the views of others
  • Stay focused on the topic
  • Everyone participates
  • No word-smithing
  • When in doubt, leave it in
  • The ideation step is informal
  • 5-Minute Limit Rule (ie, ELMO doll — Enough, Let’s Move On)

In our experience, having used all of these rules at one time or another, only the first four (shown in bold font) consistently add value. For example, a few of the ideation rules suggest that someone has made a remark (eg, No word-smithing). If the facilitator carefully polices the very first ground rule (ie, No discussion), then it obviates the need for some of the other ground rules.

The ELMO rule is also not necessary if the activity is closely policed. How long can a group maintain “high-energy”? If the group is working with high-energy at the five-minute mark, do you really want to shut them down? It is likely that energy will begin to die down in the next few minutes anyway, so if closely monitored, the formal rule is not necessary, although typically the facilitator should expect to wind down the ideation activity within six to eight minutes anyway. Larger groups may keep up high-energy for ten to twelve minutes, but it is most unlikely that any group will maintain true “high-energy” for fifteen to twenty minutes.

Once the ideation activity is complete, the real work begins. What are you going to do with the list? The first challenge is normally about definition and what something specifically means. How to effectively facilitate a consensually understood definition, is covered in the next blog.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the Solution, Improve Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

 

How to Create and Sustain a Participatory Environment


The primary responsibility of a facilitator is to protect the participants.  Secondarily, the facilitator helps drive the group toward its desired deliverable.  Since the deliverable is built to serve the participants, the people take priority over the issues.  To some extent, both people and issues are managed by creating an environment that is conducive to productivity.  Easier said, than done.

Additionally the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) encourages you to “Demonstrate effective participatory and interpersonal communication skills . . .

  • Apply a variety of participatory processes
  • Demonstrate effective verbal communication skills
  • Develop rapport with participants
  • Practice active listening
  • Demonstrate ability to observe and provide feedback to participants”

The “zen” of the experience warns us that participants will respond to stimuli differently.  Psychologist Howard Gardner identified eight distinct types of intelligence.  He claims that all humans have the spark of genius buried within, but they manifest differently among us.  The eight types include:

  1. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“Body Smart”)
  2. Interpersonal Intelligence (“People Smart”)
  3. Intra-personal Intelligence (“Self Smart”)
  4. Linguistic Intelligence (“Word Smart”)
  5. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“Number/ Reasoning Smart”)
  6. Musical Intelligence (“Musical Smart”)
  7. Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”)
  8. Spatial Intelligence (“Picture Smart”)

You can begin to appreciate the value of applying a variety of participatory tools to solicit input from your participants.  Clearly and factually, not all of them will respond effectively to a strictly “verbal” environment.  Thus it is critically important to interview your participants in advance.  How else will you understand them and the method that may best serve them?  As we say in FAST class, there is no “silver bullet” to be an effective facilitator.  If you don’t show up prepared, your performance will likely be sub optimal.

Once we understand our participants better, and can improve the selection of tools that we choose to use in our meetings and workshops, effective facilitation relies heavily on active listening.  When conflict develops, people frequently do not listen to the other person or side of the story.  The facilitator’s role becomes indispensable to provide reflection on what is being said, because more participants will listen to the facilitator.  Don’t forget to confirm however, that you got it right.

Or write, as in, capture the reflection in writing.  If you capture the participants’ primary thoughts (frequently referred to as a causal link as in “I think that . . .”) in writing, such as a large Post-It® on an easel, it becomes easier to have them reflect on what was written down or captured.  Your participants can then confirm the accuracy or offer up corrections or additions as appropriate.

When providing feedback and reflection, scan the room and observe reactions, typically non-verbal.  Determine if it appears that the group understands and perhaps agrees, or if there is resistance —perhaps due to misinterpretation or misunderstanding that you can help clear up through active listening.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the Solution, Improve Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

How to Structure the Introduction to Meetings and Workshops


Three Components

Just as the life-cycle of a meeting or workshop has three steps (ie, Get Ready, Do It, and Review), we find that within each meeting, three components need to be carefully managed to ensure success.  All agendas should include a beginning, a middle, and an end.  Many meetings fail because they neglect to include all three components.  Even a lousy book or movie includes a beginning, a middle, and an end.

The Beginning

Planning Predictable Results

Manage (and rehearse) your introductions carefully.  You want to make sure that your participants feel that their meeting has clear purpose and impact. Remember, to use the integrative and plural first person of ‘we’ or ‘us’ and avoid the singular ‘I’ so that you can begin to transfer responsibility and ownership to the participants since they own the results.

Have your room set-up to visually display the purpose, scope, and deliverable of any workshop.  If you cannot convert these three guiding principles into 50 words or less (for each), then you are not ready yet to launch the workshop. Let us repeat, if you do not know what the deliverable looks like, then you do not know what success looks like.

Consider displaying the purpose, scope, and deliverable on large Post-It paper, along with a set of ground rules appropriate to your politics and situation.  The following sequence is typically optimal for a robust introduction.

  1. Introduce yourself and explain the importance of the meeting, how much money or time is at risk if the meeting fails. Try to avoid using the word “I” after this moment. It is tough to drop the ego, but at least be conscious whenever you do use the first person singular.
  2. Present the purpose, scope, and deliverable and seek assent.  Make sure that all the participants can live with them. If they can’t, you probably have the wrong agenda prepared since it is designed specifically for your deliverable.
  3. Cover any of the administrivia to clear participants’ heads from thinking about themselves, especially their own creature comforts. Explain how to locate the lavatories, fire extinguishers, emergency exits, and other stuff particular to your group and situation.
  4. Cover the agenda and carefully explain the reason behind the sequence of the agenda steps, and how they relate to each other. Relate all of the agenda steps back to the deliverable so that participants can envision how completing each agenda step feeds content into the deliverable, thus showing progress for their efforts as they get closer to completing the meeting.
  5. Share some (not more than eight to twelve) ground rules. Consider supplementing your narrative posting of ground rules with some audio-visual support, including some humorous clips, but keep it brief and appropriate. See your FAST alumni site for some wonderful downloads.
  6. For a kick-off, have the executive sponsor explain the importance of the participants’ contributions and what management hopes to accomplish. For on-going workshops, consider a project update but do not allow the update or executive sponsor to take more than five minutes.  Your meeting is not a mini-Town Hall meeting (unless it actually is).
  • NOTE:  For multiple day workshops, remember to cover the same items at the start of subsequent days (except executive sponsor or project team update).  Additionally, review content that was built or agreed upon the day(s) before and how it relates to progress made in the agenda.

The Middle

The agenda steps between the Introduction and Wrap comprise the middle steps. Most of our other blogs are focused on what you can do between the introduction and wrap to help a group build, decide, and prioritize.  We also provide a separate blog that deals exclusively with a robust approach to the Wrap-up.  See How to Manage the Parking Lot and Wrap-up Meetings for HOW TO manage the end of a meting or workshop.

Become Part of the Solution, Improve Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

How to Facilitate Building Perceptual Maps


Illustrative Perceptual Map

Purpose

To help a team compare and prioritize its options using visual display support in a directional, perhaps less precise, manner.

Rationale

To stimulate discussion and solicit supporting views about both why options should be placed in specified areas and which options may demand more or less urgent attention and care.

Method One

After you have helped the team build their options (eg, actions to take), consider arraying them along the Payoff Matrix dimensions that include: 1) Ease of implementation, and 2) Impact of the solution.

  • If you have dozens of options, consider using a large wall display.
  • You may want to use Post-It® notes because discussion will lead to moving around (relocating) some of the options.
  • Be careful to know how to illustrate and define “High” and “Low” and to the extent possible, draw from your personal metaphor or analogy (Agenda discussion point in the FAST curriculum).
  • Use active listening and challenge frequently to discover evidence that can be used to support beliefs and claims.
  • The illustration below is called a “Two-by-Two” although it can be simply modified by adding a moderate dimension, making it what others call a “Nine-Block Diagram” (or “9 Block Diagram”) shown at the bottom.
  • In Six Sigma, comparisons are made of the CTQs (Critical to Quality) with the improvement or weighting factors.

Illustrative and Generic Payoff Matrix

Method Two

You can also facilitate building a perceptual map by creating the following:

  • Identify two dimensions that most affect the decision or situation.
  • Typically array from low to high but be prepared to define what is meant by “Low” or “High” (see PowerBalls).
  • If you need to use a third dimension, such as quantity, then consider varying the size of the symbol by cutting the Post-It notes so that width, height, or shape equates to the third dimension.
  • You might consider using different colored Post-It notes that relate to a third dimension such as large, medium, and small.
  • The alternative shown next is the Nine-Block Diagram that provides an additional, third sector of information contrasted to the Two-by-Two up above.

Nine Block Diagram

 Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember friends, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

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