Values Answer, “Who are we?” and Benjamin Franklin Called Them Virtues


We always find it interesting that consulting firms promulgate their own, unique operational definitions. The term ‘values’ can be found called many things including “Guiding Principles”, “Tenets of Operation”, “Virtues”, “Essential Elements”, etc. Generally, they all describe answers to the basic questions:

  • “Who are we?”
  • “What do we value?”
  • “What do we carry with us?”
  • “What weighs us down?”
  • “How do we make trade-offs?”
  • “How will we treat each other?”
  • “How will we work together (in support of our mission)?”

For our purpose, values are narrative descriptions of policies and philosophies. They provide one- or two-sentence descriptions about the principles or internal rules, laws, policies, and philosophies of the business.

“Values are ideals that give significance to our lives, that are reflected through the priorities we choose, and that we act on consistently and repeatedly.” —Brian Hall, PhD, Author of the Hall-Tonna Values Inventory

We find it interesting that many personal values are rarely reflected in corporate standards, temperance or cleanliness as examples. Here are the truncated values of one of the 18th century people who strongly influenced the nature of his country, before it became a country, Mr. Benjamin Franklin.

Cleanliness as a Value

Cleanliness as a Value

  1. TEMPERANCE: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.
  2. SILENCE: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.
  3. ORDER: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
  4. RESOLUTION: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.
  5. FRUGALITY: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; ie, waste nothing.
  6. INDUSTRY: Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.
  7. SINCERITY: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly a method for progressing.
  8. JUSTICE: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.
  9. MODERATION: Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.
  10. CLEANLINESS: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation.
  11. TRANQUILLITY: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.
  12. CHASTITY: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another’s peace or reputation.
  13. HUMILITY: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiatives, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need to lead more effective groups, teams, and meetings.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation and Methodology Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics of an effective facilitator and methodologist. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and numerous tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Meetings Generate Outcomes While Workshops Create Outputs


Use of the term “workshop” is frequently considered synonymous with the term “meeting.” Yet five practical differences include:

  1. Meetings consist of loosely related topics that serve to review and monitor, inform, and sometimes endorse (or decide). Participants during meetings are commonly passive while workshops demand their contributions and activity. Meetings result in an updated state of affairs or condition, while workshops create tangible deliverables oractual ‘things.’

    Workshops Demand Participation

    Workshops Demand Participation

  2. The agenda steps in a meeting are frequently boxed in time. With most workshop activity, front-end loading frequently makes it easier to complete the back-end steps and activities. Therefore, for most workshop activities, we approximate time but allow groups additional time to fully develop their consensual assumptions up-front, when it matters most.
  3. Regularly held meetings (ie, staff meetings or board meetings) end when time runs out, usually with an understanding that unfinished items will be picked up in the next meeting. When groups are building toward a workshop deliverable, the sequence of the steps is important and they frequently cannot leap ahead or advance until the foundation work is complete.
  4. Meeting leaders may not be expected to be entirely neutral. Effective leaders will learn to embrace the importance of meeting neutrality and active listening but when required, they may be forced to render an opinion or a decision. Workshop leaders should strive every way possible to avoid offering up content, knowing that the participants must own and live with their decision. Workshop leaders risk total failure if they violate neutrality by stepping on content.
  5. Workshops tend to last longer than meetings. While the average meeting may last an hour or two, the average workshop may take a few days or even a few sessions with multiple days.

Caution

Due to time, participant availability, and meeting real estate space constraints, much workshop activity today may be spread across multiple weeks, turning a potentially natural, multiple-day workshop into regular multiple-week “meetings.” The structural difference between concurrent-day and concurrent-week approaches is that the break periods between activities are longer with the concurrent or multiple week approach.

The session leader needs to be aware of workshop deliverables that are hidden in the term “meeting.” Simply because an event is being called a meeting or lasts for only an hour or two, does not give the session leader the right to show up unprepared or to become a judge of others, their input, and their opinions.

Legacy

The FAST curriculum contains the information and guidelines necessary for a FAST facilitator to effectively conduct both meetings and workshops. FAST originally stood for Facilitated Application Specification Technique. We promise not to say that again. Think of FAST as the opposite of slow.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiatives, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need to lead more effective groups, teams, and meetings.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation and Methodology Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics of an effective facilitator and methodologist. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and numerous tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

What Aristotle Might Say to Facilitators Who Cannot Remove Their Biases


Argumentation can be described as the SMart approach to persuasion. It combines appeals to logic, or the Scientific Method, along with an appreciation of artistic attributes that that make the appeals more persuasive and convincing. Specifically Aristotle discusses three drivers of persuasive success: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. Good facilitators ought familiarize themselves with all three.

Ethos (Greek for ‘character’) captures a sense of credibility and refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the presenter. Ethos may be expressed through tone and style of message, transforming the speaker into an authority on the subject. It lends itself to the creation of reputation and exists independently from the message. The impact of ethos is often called an argument’s ‘ethical appeal’ or the ‘appeal from credibility.’  (Pre-Test)

Three Forms of Persuasion

Three Forms of Persuasion

Aristotle tells us that the appeal from ethos should not come from appearances, but from a person’s use of language. To improve one’s credibility, minimize or avoid using the first person singular “I” or “me.” Substitute the integrative “we” or “us” or refer to the collective and pluralistic “you.” Today, advertising relies much on ethos and takes the form of credible spokespeople, such as Michael Jordan selling underwear. The historical view holds that three characteristics help fortify ethos, all that should be embraced by a facilitator, namely:

  1. Good moral character,
  2. Good sense, and
  3. Goodwill

Logos (Greek for ‘word’) refers to the internal consistency and reasoning of the message—clarity of the claim, logic of its reasons, and effectiveness of supporting evidence. Presumably Aristotle’s favorite approach, ‘logos’ captures the logic used to support claims (induction and deduction) and will likely include supporting facts and statistics.

The impact of logos may be called an argument’s logical appeal.

A facilitator supports inductive logic by challenging participants for facts, evidence, and support and allowing them to develop a general conclusion. Or, you can facilitate deductive reasoning by challenging participants with a general proposition and then eliciting from them specific facts, evidence, and support.

Pathos (Greek for ‘suffering’ or ‘experience’) is frequently referred to as an emotional appeal but it also refers to an ‘appeal to the audience’s sympathies and imagination.’ The persuasive appeal of pathos facilitates participants’ sense of identity, their self-interests, and emotions. Many consider pathos the strongest of the appeals.

Be cautious as appeals to participants’ sense of identity and self-interest exploit common biases. They naturally bend in the direction of what is advantageous to them, what serves their interests or the interests of the groups to which they belong.

The three appeals above belong to some of the styles used to describe rhetoric, which we define as the “art of adjusting ideas to people, and people to ideas.” Fortify yourself with a deeper understanding of rhetoric and argumentation if you truly want to become a better facilitator.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiatives, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need to lead more effective groups, teams, and meetings.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation and Methodology Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics of an effective facilitator and methodologist. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and numerous tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Facilitate: Indispensable in Guide to the Business Analyst Body of Knowledge®


How to run a better meeting is like learning to be a better listener, easy to understand but hard to do. Why? Poor muscle memory. What can we do about it? Change our muscle memory.

While perfect practice remains the best way to overcome poor muscle memory, take a closer look at the International Institute of Business Analysis™ (IIBA®), in particular the newest edition of their Guide to the Business Analyst Body of Knowledge® known as BABOK® Guide v3.

In its strong compendium about disciplined and structured thinking, the term ‘facilitate’ appears 112 times over 514 pages. Statistically, ~25 percent of its pages indicate the need, reference, or link to the importance of facilitation.

Good and Bad Muscle Memory

Good and Bad Muscle Memory

Interestingly, and perhaps to avoid redundancy, the IIBA provides two different operational definitions for the term ‘facilitation.” In section (9.5.1) focused exclusively on facilitation, they state (pg 217) that:

Facilitation is the skill of moderating discussions within a group in order to enable all participants to effectively articulate their views on a topic under discussion, and to ensure that participants in the discussion are able to recognize and appreciate the differing points of view that are articulated.

Later in the much-appreciated Glossary, they use the following definition (pg 456):

facilitation: The art of leading and encouraging people through systematic efforts toward agreed-upon objectives in a manner that enhances involvement, collaboration, productivity, and synergy.

While we concur with their assertions, we also humbly suggest that facilitation is both an art AND a science. We use the term SMart, suggesting the combination of an objective scientific method (SM) combined with the subjective and adjustable features, the ‘art’ (ergo, SMart). To the extent possible, we aspire toward repeatable, consistent outputs by using the rigor of disciplined structure.

The IIBA further provides reference to many of the opportunities for us to improve our muscle memory by becoming better facilitators, and although too many to list, here are a few samplings where you ought focus your practice efforts to become more facilitative when leading groups of people:

  • facilitate alignment of goals and objectives
  • facilitate analysis and deep understanding of the organization’s processes
  • facilitate articulation of the product vision statement
  • facilitate consensus building and trade-offs and ensures that solution value is realized and initiative timelines are met
  • facilitate coordinated and synchronized action across the organization by aligning action with the organization’s vision, goals, and strategy
  • facilitate cost management and reduce duplication of work
  • facilitate decision making and conflict resolution, and ensure that all participants have an opportunity to be heard
  • facilitate drawing and storing matrices and diagrams to represent requirements
  • facilitate estimations of the value realized by a solution
  • facilitate holistic and balanced planning and thinking
  • facilitate identification of potential improvements by highlighting “pain points” in the process structure (ie, process visualization)
  • facilitate interactions between stakeholders in order to help them make a decision, solve a problem, exchange ideas and information, or reach an agreement regarding the priority and the nature of requirements
  • facilitate knowledge transfer and understanding
  • facilitate meetings with set agendas and meeting roles or informal working sessions
  • facilitate organizational alignment, linking goals to objectives, supporting solutions, underlying tasks, and resources
  • facilitate planning, analyzing, testing, and demonstrating activities
  • facilitate recording, organizing, storing, and sharing requirements and designs
  • facilitate release planning discussions
  • facilitate requirements and designs traceability
  • facilitate review sessions, keeps participants focused on the objectives of the review and ensure that each relevant section of the work product is covered
  • facilitate stakeholder collaboration, decisions, and to understand the relative importance of business analysis information
  • facilitate the approval process
  • facilitate the change assessment process
  • facilitate the process of prioritization
  • facilitate understanding and decision making, the value of proposed changes, and other complex ideas
  • facilitate workshops

They also provide some wonderful goals of effective facilitation including:

  • encouraging participation from all attendees,
  • ensuring that participants correctly understand each other’s positions,
  • establishing ground rules such as being open to suggestions, building on what is there, not dismissing ideas, and allowing others to speak and express themselves,
  • making it clear to the participants that the facilitator is a third party to the process and not a decision maker nor the owner of the topic,
  • preventing discussions from being sidetracked onto irrelevant topics,
  • remaining neutral and not taking sides, and
  • using meeting management skills and tools to keep discussions focused and organized.

Finally, it is interesting that in this third edition, within the Section called Interaction Skills, they broadened the scope of facilitation by:

  • Facilitation and Negotiation—split competencies and renamed Facilitation

Particularly interesting to us since many times participants are in violent agreement with each other, but need a solid facilitator to arrive at common understanding.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

94 Different Types of Meeting Purposes Based on More than One Dozen Factors


While by no means ‘exhaustive’, we researched and assembled various meeting types from dozens of sources, too many to provide attribution for a brief blog (write us if you want more detail). We discovered it somewhat humorous that the world does not agree on the definition of a ‘type.’ We discovered meeting types are stratified by:

Illustration of the Author After Completing This Article

Illustration of the Author After Completing This Article

  • Audience (eg, shareholder vs. stakeholder)
  • Deliverable (output)
  • Location (onsite vs. offsite)
  • Meeting leader role (manager vs. facilitator)
  • Outcome (desired)
  • Resource (eg, production vs. project)
  • Rules (eg, open vs. private)
  • Size (quantity of participants and size of venue)
  • Style (eg, face to face vs. virtual)
  • Timing (variations included chronology, duration, frequency, and preparation time)
  • Topic (eg, financial review vs. party), and
  • Variants that probably us

Some sources provided context and justified their topology. We especially love the following comment because it is so definitive, albeit wrapped in truth (source-Seth Godin):

“There are three types of meetings. Meetings are marketing in real time with real people. (A conference is not a meeting. A conference is a chance for a circle of people to interact). There are only three kinds of classic meetings:

  1. This is a meeting where attendees are informed about what is happening (with or without their blessing). While there may be a facade of conversation, it’s primarily designed to inform.
  2. This is a meeting where the leader actually wants feedback or direction or connections. You can use this meeting to come up with an action plan, or develop a new idea, for example.
  3. This is a meeting where the other side is supposed to say yes but has the power to say no.”

—OR—

“While there are a variety of reasons for call group meeting (some of which have little to do with decision making or problem solving), for our purposes we will categorize decision-making meetings into one of the following.

  1. Strategy
  2. Problem solving
  3. Operational decisions
  4. Evaluation”

—OR—

“There are six types of meetings:

  1. Organizational meetings;
  2. Regular meetings;
  3. Special or emergency meetings;
  4. Work sessions;
  5. Public hearings; and
  6. Executive sessions.”

We did little to cleanup or edit the following and do not attempt to defend it, rather to share it. Where redundancies were obvious we combined some definitions. Some meeting types were provided without definition. Some types appear redundant, but due to rhetorical differences, we could not be certain if they were identical or not so we left them as discrete meeting types.

The 94 types of meetings we identified are as follows.

  1. Ad hoc Meetings: A meeting called for a special purpose. A good example of an ad-hoc meeting is a team of individuals chosen by the company to join a trade show and represent the company so a meeting is needed to discuss the important things and activities during the event.
  2. Board Meetings: If the meeting participants are solely board and directors members of the organization, definitely it is termed as board meeting.
  3. Brainstorming Meetings
  4. Breakout Meetings
  5. Business Meetings: With customers, clients, colleagues, etc.; often require presentations.
  6. Class Meetings
  7. Client Meetings: Some organizational teams start working on a new project and possibly a new client through a discussion.
  8. Collaborative Meetings: Some of your employees and managers may work closely with suppliers, customers or business partners on projects such as joint product development or supply chain improvements. Bringing external groups into meetings with your employees helps to strengthen business relationships and gives your employees a greater sense of customer focus.
  9. Combination Meetings: A type of meeting according to objective is called combination meeting wherein two or more of the meeting categories are applied in a single meeting session.
  10. Commitment Building Meetings
  11. Community Meetings: To interpret decisions, get input, build relationships, gain trust, etc.
  12. Conference Call Meetings
  13. Conferences: A highly structured, moderated meeting, like a presentation, where various participants contribute following a fixed agenda.
  14. Coordinating Meetings: To assure all know what’s happening when and who is responsible.
  15. Creative Meetings: To define new markets, create new products, etc.
  16. Discussions: A meeting where the leader actually wants feedback or direction or connections. You can use this meeting to come up with an action plan, or develop a new idea, for example.
  17. Emergency Meetings: A meeting called to address a crisis, whether internal or external. Such meetings are often arranged with very little notice. If the emergency meeting conflicts with another appointment, the emergency meeting typically takes precedence. If a serious problem, such as a fire or major financial loss occurs, it’s essential to inform the whole company so that all employees understand the implications and the changes that will occur. In the event of a serious fire, for example, employees may have to work in temporary accommodation with limited access to telephones and other resources. A major disaster or loss may lead to redundancies or even closure. By communicating openly in the meeting, you can reduce feelings of uncertainty in the workforce and avoid the risk of rumors spreading.
  18. Evaluation Meetings: Evaluation meetings are held to evaluate a new process, structural modification, new program, etc. The important issue is to establish a set of evaluative criteria based on the goals of the new program or process.
  19. Event Planning Meetings
  20. Executive Sessions: If allowed by charter, these meetings are closed to the public and press and generally are held for discussion of legal (litigation, advice from counsel, etc.), personnel, or other confidential matters. There are very specific legal provisions for closing the meeting such as recording the vote of council members who authorized the meeting and recording the circumstances of the meeting in the official minutes of the municipality. Executive meetings should be held only in accordance with the strict mandates of the Open Meetings Act.
  21. Family Meetings
  22. Feedback Meetings: Feedback meetings are conducted when the purpose is to let individuals provide reactions and feedback to one or several participants on a certain presentation or project.
  23. Feedforward Meetings: When there is a need to make status reports and present new information, participants gather for a feedforward meeting. It is otherwise known as reporting and presenting.
  24. Financial Review (or Update) Meetings
  25. Holiday Meetings
  26. Information Sharing Meetings: Where attendees are informed about what is happening (with or without their blessing). While there may be a facade of conversation, it is primarily designed to inform.
  27. Interdepartmental Meetings: To get input, interpret decisions and policies, share info, etc.
  28. Introduction Meetings
  29. Investigative Meetings: Generally when conducting a pre-interview, exit interview or a meeting among the investigator and representative
  30. Investor Meetings
  31. Keynote Speeches
  32. Kickoff (or First) Meetings: The first meeting with the project team and the client of the project to discuss the role of each team member. This initial gathering is called a kick-off meeting. It is also during this time wherein members are assigned individual tasks on the project.
  33. Large Conference Meetings
  34. Leadership Meetings
  35. Management Meetings: A conference among managers and supervisors is called a management meeting. If the meeting participants are solely board and directors members of the organization, definitely it is termed as board meeting.
  36. Manager Meetings
  37. Meetings to Plan Bigger Meetings
  38. New Business Pitch Meetings
  39. New Product Launch Meetings
  40. Off-site Meetings: Also called “offsite retreat” and known as an meeting in the UK.
  41. One-on-one Meetings: A meeting is not necessarily composed of a group of individuals. A discussion of two individuals is called a one-on-one meeting. Your boss may sometimes conduct a one-on-one meeting with you and the other employees individually to talk about your performance appraisal.
  42. Online Meetings
  43. Open Meetings: Best used for internal team collaborations. No designated host needed. Anyone start meetings at any time.
  44. Operational Decision Meetings: Make decisions such as staffing, purchase, or work method decision. The issue here is the establishment of set of criteria (derived from the goal of the decision and claimant issues) by which to evaluate alternatives.
  45. Organizational Meetings: Usually very soon after each election, a meeting may be necessary to establish the procedures concerning conduct of council meetings. Local practices may vary, but generally the meeting should establish: regular dates, times, and locations for routine council meetings; rules of procedure for conducting business at meetings (Robert’s Rules, etc.); and assignment of council member duties (i.e., mayor pro tempore, committee chairpersons, etc.). Many municipalities adopt and publish a schedule of meeting dates for an entire year, while charter sets others.
  46. Party Meetings
  47. Permission Meetings: This is a meeting where the other side is supposed to say yes but has the power to say no.
  48. Pitch Meetings
  49. Planning Meetings: If certain structuring and future resolutions need to be made, a planning meeting can be called.
  50. Political Meetings
  51. Pre-Bid Meetings: A meeting of various competitors and or contractors to visually inspect a jobsite for a future project. The future customer or engineer who wrote the project specification to ensure all bidders are aware of the details and services expected of them normally hosts the meeting. Attendance at the Pre-Bid Meeting may be mandatory. Failure to attend usually results in a rejected bid.
  52. Presentation Meetings: A highly structured meeting where one or more people speak and a moderator leads the proceedings. The purpose is usually to inform. Attendees may have an opportunity to ask questions, but typically their participation is limited.
  53. Private Meetings: Used for managed meetings, where the host has control. Meeting starts when host opens meeting. Host controls who can or cannot enter live meeting and host controls role delegation.
  54. Problem-Solving Meetings: When a specific problem emerges, usually manifesting itself in the form of some type of response from a dissatisfied stakeholder or claimant, a problem-solving meeting is held. These meeting take one of two general forms.
    1. Solve the immediate problem—the focus of this type of meeting is to determine how to satisfy the immediate concerns of the dissatisfied stakeholder. For example, if a specific customer has received a batch of defective parts, the issue might be, How to we get non-defective parts to this customer?
    2. Solve the long-range problem—the focus of this type of meeting is to reduce the likelihood of a given type of problem surfacing in the future, by diagnosing the cause(s) of this recurring problem and developing a solution consistent with these causes that solves the problem. In the above example, the problem might be defining as, How do we reduce the likelihood of defective parts being produced.
  55. Production Meetings
  56. Project Meetings: Project meetings bring together people from different departments working on a specific task, such as new product development or business reorganization. Project meetings take a number of different forms, including planning and progress meetings, brainstorming sessions, or design and review meetings.
  57. Project Planning Meetings
  58. Public Hearings: The council holds public hearings when it is considering a subject having unusually high community impact and when it is considering items for which local, state, or federal regulations mandate such hearings. The main purpose of such a hearing is to obtain testimony from the public. An issue on which a public hearing is held may be the subject of several work sessions and may generate potentially more citizen participation than can be accommodated at a regular meeting with its other normal business items. An additional meeting of the council for a public hearing can be valuable in providing the public an opportunity to learn the current status of a project and give the council, as the public policy makers, clear indications of public sentiment before making a decision. Additional work sessions at a subsequent meeting generally follow the public hearing before final council action on the matter at a regular hearing.
  59. Public Relations Meetings
  60. Quick Business Meetings: To check-in, coordinate, share info, prepare for next steps, anticipate customer or employee needs, answer questions for each other, etc.
  61. Regular Meetings: This is the official, final public action meeting. It is the only meeting where the council may adopt ordinances or regulations. One very important feature of the regular meeting is the public forum aspect. The regular meeting generally includes at least a citizen comment period and often incorporates a formal public hearing on one or more subjects. While allowing public comment to some degree, the regular meeting always allows the public an opportunity to hear the council discussion on each subject.
  62. Religious Meetings
  63. Report Meetings
  64. Research Review Meetings
  65. Sales Conference: A sales conference is an important communication and motivational tool. Sales representatives spend the majority of their time away from the office, often working alone. Holding a sales conference brings your sales team together with other members of the company who affect their success, such as marketing staff, product specialists and senior managers. You can use the conference to launch important initiatives such as a new product announcement or a major advertising campaign, as well as communicating your company’s plans for the next quarter or the next financial year.
  66. Sales Meetings
  67. School Meetings
  68. Seminar: A structured meeting with an educational purpose. Seminars are usually led by people with expertise in the subject matter.
  69. Shareholder Meetings
  70. Skills Building Meetings
  71. Small Conference Meetings
  72. Special Meetings: Regular meetings are scheduled in advance (usually one or two per month) to allow the public, press, and persons having business for the council to attend the meetings. However, special situations may require convening a special meeting often with little, if any, advance notice. Examples of special meeting items include, but are not limited to: emergency ordinances, unexpected matters requiring official action before the next regularly scheduled meeting, emergency equipment replacement, financial problems, and health and safety emergencies. While the occasional need for such meetings cannot be denied, the term “emergency” should be used very carefully to avoid abuse of the special meeting.
  73. Sports Meetings (and Events)
  74. Staff Meetings: Typically a meeting between a manager and those that report to the manager. Staff meetings enable you to keep employees informed on issues that affect their work. Your managers or supervisors hold regular departmental meetings to update employees on progress or deal with any issues affecting their department. If there is a major policy change or other issue that affects the whole company, you may prefer to hold a meeting of all employees to explain the change.
  75. Stakeholder Meetings
  76. Stand-up Meetings: A meeting with attendees physically standing. The discomfort of standing for long periods helps to keep the meetings short, (no more than 10 minutes to plan the day, make announcements, set expectations, assure understanding and alignment, identify upcoming difficulties, etc.).
  77. Standing Meetings: A regularly scheduled appointment, such as a weekly one-on-one with a boss or a department; or a project meeting taking place at intervals until the project is over. Since these meetings recur, their format and agenda become relatively well established. Although it’s important to hold these meetings at routine intervals for convenience and consistency, at times they can be rescheduled.
  78. Status Meetings: A meeting that is leader-led and is done through a one-way communication reporting is called a status meeting.
  79. Strategy Building Meetings: Strategy or planning meetings are called to determine the future direction of the organization or unit. Generally the issues of the mission and current strategies for achieving it are discussed.
  80. Strategy Review Meetings: Using tools like the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) model; the current direction of the organization is assessed. If it is discovered that changes in the environment render the current mission and/or strategy inappropriate, a new strategic plan is developed.
  81. Strategy Testing and Adapting Meetings
  82. Task-Related Meetings: Task-related meetings usetheknowledgeandexperienceofgroupmemberstoaccomplish a work task, such as problem-solving, decision-making, fact-finding, planning, etc. These meetings are highly interactive, and involve two-way communication between all participants. Task-related meetings also tend to fall apart more quickly with poor meeting management. The two variations include:
    1. Directed—the leader runs the meeting and controls the agenda. These are the most common types of meetings.
    2. Facilitated—an impartial facilitator runs the meeting and controls the agenda and technique. These are the least common, but are growing in use, as they are the most effective for decision-making and building.
  83. Team Meetings: A meeting among colleagues working on various aspects of a team project.
  84. Termination Meetings
  85. Topical Meetings: A gathering called to discuss one subject, such as a work issue or a task related to a project.
  86. Training Session Meetings
  87. Trip Planning Meetings
  88. Twelve Step Meetings
  89. Update Meetings
  90. Webinar Meetings: For presentations, trainings and town hall meetings. Meeting starts when host opens meeting and attendees are muted upon entry. Host controls host delegation.
  91. Work Meetings: To produce a product or intangible result such as a decision.
  92. Work Sessions (workshops): These are the most common meetings in most municipalities. Work sessions are essentially “shirt-sleeves” meetings where the council discusses issues informally to achieve more complete understanding of one or more subjects. Many work sessions are held in another room away from the formal council chamber with a “round-table” type seating arrangement to promote informal discussion. These sessions take many forms and cover virtually any subject matter. Typical work sessions will include a variety of items and will generally serve as a background discussion about items scheduled for official action at the next regular meeting.
  93. Year Beginning Meetings
  94. Year End Meetings

Much is left to wonder . . . but after this exhausting effort, we would prefer a holiday, party, or sports meeting.  Why do you conduct and attend meetings (please check all that apply):

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Core Competency: Planning Intends to Change Minds, Not Simply Make Plans


Facilitating a planning session makes you a change agent. Even President Eisenhower (then General) was known to say, “ In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable.” While an effective facilitator keeps their group focused on the meeting output (ie, deliverable), the real work begins when the meeting is over, because what we really plan for are new outcomes.

What President Eisenhower was suggesting is that three-ring binders may sit on a shelf and gather dust, but the key deliverable from planning sessions occurs in the fifteen cm (six inches) between our ears.

To change (as a verb) can mean a lot of things including, among others, to:

From Planning to Rewards

From Planning to Rewards

  • Adapt
  • Adjust
  • Alter
  • Amend
  • Differentiate
  • Doctor
  • Evolve
  • Innovate
  • Modify
  • Productize
  • Redesign
  • Refine
  • Remodel
  • Reorder
  • Reorganize
  • Reshape
  • Restyle
  • Revamp
  • Revise
  • Transfigure
  • Transform
  • Tweak
  • Vary

Every one of us has been involved in change, and if you are reading this, you are probably involved in a change effort right now. Congratulations, the ability to lead a group of people to change, agree, and take ownership and maintenance of the future state represents tremendous success for the session leader who got them there.

Groups that are proactive in their approach to change make more money than those who simply react. Many studies point to innovation as the modern driver of profitability. As a core competency, groups who become adept at change, which can convert their creativity into profit (innovation defined), learn the value of effective facilitation. The facilitator, remaining unbiased and neutral about HOW TO change, serves as the primary catalyst and accelerator of change, corporate learning, and financial growth.

The more we mature in the role, the more we understand that corporate reality is subjective and decisions are driven by the perception of reality, from each person. Therefore we embrace learning to ‘homogenize’ our separate realities into our common, objective reality—that is unfortunately accepted by everyone but owned by no one. As context experts, our role during meetings gets people closer to shared understanding, to acceptance of what is truly objective, and to own their commitments and consequences when our meetings conclude. When performed seamlessly, our role helps individuals that help groups that help organizations to exceed their goals and maximize their financial rewards. And to think, it all started with a planning meeting.

In the words of Giuseppe di Lampedusa in The Leopard, even: “If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change.”

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Understanding the Time and Place for Individual Versus Group Decisions


The continuum of leadership behavior provides one context for understanding the best time and place to make individual decisions contrasted with making group decisions. That continuum, as illustrated below, ranges from the completely subordinate-centered approach to the completely leader-centered approach. In between these extremes are another four types that blend or offset the “center” perspective.

Range of Meeting Leadership Styles

Range of Meeting Leadership Styles

Both approaches can provide value, while specific advantages depend on some of the factors discussed below. Frequently, advantages of group decision making include:

  1. Improved quality of decisions, proven over and over because of contributing factors such as . . .
    • Ability to generate more ideas and options
    • Self-monitoring that forces participants to keep each other honest
    • Fewer errors in using information that is available
    • Availability of more information
    • Reduction of potential individual bias
    • Willingness to manage higher levels of risk
  2. Increases ownership through higher levels of understanding, acceptance, and likelihood to make necessary adaptations during implementation.
  3. Participating individuals are strengthened, learn more, and can more readily re-apply the same rationale when they are making subsequent individual decisions.

There are some downside considerations as well including:

  1. Potential to take more time
  2. May create or heighten expectations, perhaps making them unobtainable
  3. Could be at variance with management or senior staff
  4. Quality of the output or decision might be hampered if the group is dominated by an individual(s), submits to forced selection or voting (leading to “losers” and consequent abandonment of ownership), or congeals into what Janis (1972) describes as “Groupthink.”

Groupthink describes a state or condition when the group regresses into poor thinking and social pressures. Janis claims that three factors increase the likelihood of groupthink, namely: insulation from qualified outsiders, leaders who promote their favorite position, and strong cohesion. You may be witnessing groupthink if you observe some of the following symptoms:

  • Excessive optimism and illusion of invulnerability
  • Tendency to dismiss contrary points of view accompanied with collective efforts to rationalize their own position or discount the positions of others
  • Unquestioned beliefs in the group’s supposed moral superiority and ignoring the consequences of their decision(s)
  • Prejudicial comments and stereotyping outsiders not in the meeting
  • Audible and non-verbal pressure on participants to conform
  • Censorship of deviations from what has congealed to be ‘consensus’

Research shows however, that decision by consensus tends to result in higher quality decisions than command-control, manipulation, persuasion, voting and other means of compromise.

What is Consensus?

Consensus must be carefully defined. A robust method will make full use of all the resources in the group, can be relied on for acceptable ways to reconcile conflict, and will generate the ownership a group needs to ensure that what goes on in the meeting is carried out after the meeting has concluded. We highly recommend that ‘consensus’ DOES NOT mean we are making everyone happy. Rather, we are striving for a common acceptance and level of understanding that would include ‘yes’ answers by all participants to the following questions:

  1. Can you live with this (decision/ plan/ output/ outcome, etc.)?
  2. Will you support it professionally and not subvert it when the meeting concludes?
  3. Will you personally lose any sleep over it?

Resulting in Synergy

We could define synergy as the increased effectiveness of working together where the outcome becomes greater than the sum of the parts. We are seeking an answer that did not walk into the meeting, rather it can be created during the meeting. For a meeting with nine people for example, we are looking for the tenth answer. Synergy frequently results among groups that are seeking consensus, built around a common goal. When supported by strong facilitation, participants agree on a clear and common goal (typically the meeting deliverable), share openly, listen carefully, think clearly, and they are likely to achieve synergy.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

ScrumMasters and Agile Facilitation Practices Can Benefit All Facilitators


The term ‘information’ captures a sense of flow and dynamism, it is not static. A compound word derived from stuff that moves ‘in-formation’ should concern all facilitators, as rarely do we touch a product or conduct a process during a meeting or a workshop. Rather, we are all working with subject matter experts who provide us their perspective about stuff that is in-formation.

Collaborative practices have been increasingly applied to running agile meetings and Scrum ‘events’ with most recognizing facilitation skills as core to the ScrumMaster role. Some of the developments embraced by many that could apply to your meetings include:

Becoming a More Agile Facilitator

Becoming a More Agile Facilitator

  • Consensus building, NOT voting
  • High participation
  • Providing a variety of stimulating activities
  • Structured collaborative tools
  • Time boxing
  • Visible agendas

Some of the benefits espoused from the agile approach to facilitation practices are shown below:

  • Collective knowledge about product and process decisions
  • Early identification of high-benefit opportunities
  • Encouraging flexibility and adjustments toward unexpected developments
  • Frequent re-assessment to identify appropriate course corrections
  • In-depth exploration of more factors than normally considered

Since we are not ScrumMasters ourselves, we borrow some of this from Cara Turner, who provides richer detail about the relationship of agile methods and neuroscience at her blog site, facilitatingagility.com. Cara, along with numerous authors and scientists she uses in support, refers to eight concepts that all facilitators ought consider, namely:

  1. Conceptual Challenges: Keeping participants conscious to “be here now” burns a lot of fuel. Additionally, keeping multiple concepts in mind, at the same time, is virtually impossible for a group since individuals cannot typically think about more than four concepts at once, and thinking about only two at once is optimal, therefore . . .
  2. . . . Focus: The hardest part of any session is getting a group of people to focus on the same thing at the same time with the same meaning and intent. Be sure to schedule ample breaks.
    1. Conduct frequent breakout sessions to keep energy flowing.
    2. Consider ergonomic stretches and breathing exercises to keep participants vibrant.
    3. If necessary, use time boxing rather than burning out participants. Subsequence meeting can pick up where you leave off, with fresh energy.
    4. Schedule the most important stuff the first part of the meeting, and if it is critically important, schedule that meeting for the first part of the day.
    5. We believe that two ten-minute breaks are superior to the traditional 15 to 20 minute break offered each morning or afternoon. We do post timers however, and do not allow them to become eleven-minute (or more) breaks. Do NOT penalize people who are on time by waiting for people who are not.
  3. Get Graphic: Visual imagery also stimulates making it easier to analyze. Images (ie, iconic) and sketches (ie, illustrative) are more efficient for capturing complex relationships than narrative (ie, written) terms. If you work in a multi-national organization, they also mitigate some of the challenges associated with translations and transliterations.
  4. Mapping Stimulates: The power of patterns remains unchallenged and continues to be supported by most scientific research across a broad spectrum of disciplines. Mapping, such as logical models and process flow diagrams, make it easier to identify omissions and more fully explain the complex relationships that exists among the components being discussed.
  5. The Zen of the Experience (use all the senses): When physical/ spatial, visual, and sound (and optimally even taste and smell) harmonize, we create more vivid associations that improve our memory recall. Who cannot recall the smell, standing at the seashore, of an “ocean breeze”?
  6. Think Deeply: Here the basic challenge advances our short-term thinking to embrace long-term implications and consequences. What are the deeper associations? Because the cost of omissions, that is ‘missing stuff’, is exorbitantly high (especially with information technologies), we need to more fully value and appreciate some of the longer exercises that may be required to bring the discussion to a higher level that removes the myopic view from your participants and forces them to be integrative with their thinking. Simply put, causal diagrams take longer than ideation sessions.
  7. Use Analogies: Educators have known for centuries that learning is amplified when explained via analogy or metaphor. We have ben promoting the concept of an analogy as a way to explain the agenda and how the pieces fit together for nearly thirty years now.
  8. Write it Down: In addition to providing visual stimulation, if it is not written down it will be forgotten. In other words, if it is not written down, it did not happen. Do not waste everyone’s time, please write it down. It is easier to delete later than to recall what was said, “back then.”

Combined, the concepts above make it easier (ie, faciltaere) for your participants to act on knowledge accessed and developed during your meetings and workshops. For additional activities to support your sessions, look at her post or some of the worthwhile bookmarks provided below that support collaborative sorting, experience prototyping, idea generation, and other simulations to build consensus and higher quality deliverables, FAST.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

The Primary Reasons for Hosting Workshops Differ from Hosting Meetings


Meetings are typically held for one of the following three reasons:

Workshops and Meetings Support the Life Cycle of Projects and Other Initiatives

Workshops and Meetings Support the Life Cycle of Projects and Other Initiatives

  1. To endorse or decide
  2. To inform
  3. To monitor and review

Workshops on the other hand tend to focus on singular topics and strive to build impactful deliverables. Successful workshops depend on the following:

  • Building a workshop method to engage participants
  • Defining specific deliverables
  • Grouping information gathering activities
  • Policing the workshop method to accomplish those goals

Over the years we have catalogued the various workshops we have facilitated and share the reasons with you, sequenced below in alphabetical order, rather than frequency, importance, or randomness:

  • Any initiative requiring decision-making or consensual agreement between two or more people
  • Business area analysis
  • Business case development (including process optimization)
  • Business performance management (BPM—including balanced scorecard and dashboards)
  • Business process improvement—design or optimization
  • Content management prioritization
  • Executing your strategy, building action plans
  • Gathering requirements
  • Innovation, at least the creativity and ideation portion
  • Key performance, measuring and management indicators
  • Knowledge management (including decision support)
  • Maintenance activity to solve for missing descriptions of changes, precision with requirements, or problem identification
  • New system or business development initiatives
  • Problem situation requiring arbitration or neutrality
  • Project management
  • Problem solving
  • Product development processes
  • Scientific inquiry or challenging paradigms
  • Six Sigma® and Lean or other quality initiatives
  • Strategic planning at any level in the organizational holarchy
  • Team charters (including management perspectives and supporting strategic planning activities or tactical assignments)
  • Virtual meetings and workshops
  • Voice of the customer or advisory groups

Meetings frequently follow workshop activity. For example, numerous meetings will follow a project charter-planning workshop across the life cycle of the project being supported. While dozens of life cycles exist (eg; IPCC, DMAIC, etc.), each workshop has its own life cycle with at least three phases:

  • Preparation—getting yourself and the participants ready
  • Workshop event—gathering the information, making the decisions, and documenting the results
  • Review and resolution—distribute and integrate deliverable, typically into project

Over the next few issues we will take a look at various components required to support each phase, with required and optional roles that support a successful workshop endeavor.

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

Does a Facilitator Need to be a Subject Matter Expert? (Content vs. Context)


Some of the best facilitators are NOT Subject Matter Experts within the topic and scope of the discussion; however, NOR can they afford to be subject matter ignorant. They need to be subject matter conversant and understand the terms being used and the relationship of those terms to the deliverable, but they do NOT have to have an ‘answer.’

Effective Facilitators Avoid Content Kowtow by Participants

Effective Facilitators Avoid Content Kowtow by Participants

For example, this author facilitated sessions in North America, Europe, and Asia with radiologists and directors of radiology for a manufacture to help them design their next generation of CT (Computerized Tomography) scanners. While NOT a physicist or radiologist, with strong preparation to understand the basic and essential principles of operation, we were highly effective at facilitating discussions around pain points and possible solutions.

Neutrality, curiosity, and willingness to challenge assumptions are far more important facilitator skills than being expert on the topic. Without the humility that encourages one to ‘seek to understand rather than being understood’, participants will drop out, go quiet, and disengage because they are thinking: “If this person (the leader or facilitator) already has the answer, then why are they seeking out my opinion?”

The better challenge or question may be, “What is the unit of measurement for distinguishing between ‘subject matter expertise’ and ‘subject matter conversant’?” For us, the answer is simple.

Before the session begins, the facilitator and participants ought have properly prepared. Optimal preparation includes writing down the meeting purpose, scope, deliverables, and simple agenda before the meeting begins. Make sense? Hopefully you understand that the facilitator, at minimum, better know the reason of the meeting, WHY it is important (ie, purpose), WHAT will be covered and NOT covered during the meeting (ie, scope—that is necessary to prevent meeting scope creep, the number one killer of meetings), WHERE the group is headed (ie, the deliverable or what DONE looks like), and HOW they are going to get there (ie, the agenda or prepared structure).

Therefore the unit of measurement becomes the glossary or lexicon. To what extent does the facilitator understand the terms being used in the prepared meeting purpose, scope, deliverables, and simple agenda? To what extent does the facilitator’s understanding of those terms harmonize with the understanding of the participants, their culture, and the project team or work that must occur after the meeting concludes? To what extent do the participants share the same or identical meaning of the terms being used?

We illustrate this importance by challenging you to explain the difference between a ‘goal’ and an ‘objective’. To us, they are NOT the same things. We prefer an operational definition suggesting that ‘goals’ are directional and somewhat fuzzy. For example, a mountain climber may have a ‘goal’ of getting some good photographs when they reach the summit. An ‘objective’ however is truly SMART—ie, Specific, Measurable, Adjustable (our preferred deviation from Deming’s original definition of Achievable), Realistic, and Time-based. For example, a mountain climber may need to be sheltered in a tent and sleeping bag at 3,000 meters by 17:00 before a storm blows in or they risk freezing to death.

Some culture define ‘goals’ and ‘objectives’ the opposite of our preference, defining ‘objectives’ as fuzzy and goals as SMART. A good facilitator is agnostic, and can use either set of definitions, but knows the importance of determining the optimal definitions BEFORE the meeting begins. They are responsible for controlling the context (ie, contextual expertise) and not the content (ie, subject matter expertise).

Let us know what you think by commenting below. For additional methodology and team-based meeting support for your change initiative, refer to “Change or Die, a Business Process Improvement Manual” for much of the support you might need.

Become Part of the SolutionImprove Your Facilitation Skills

The FAST curriculum on Professional Facilitation Skills details the responsibilities and dynamics mentioned above. Remember, nobody is smarter than everybody, so consult your FAST Facilitator Reference Manual or attend a FAST professional facilitative leadership-training workshop offered around the world (see MG Rush for a current schedule — an excellent way to earn 40 PDUs from PMI, CDUs from IIBA, or CEUs).

Do not forget to order Change or Die if you’re working on a business process improvement project. It provides detailed workshop agendas and detailed tools to make your role easier and your team’s performance a lot more effective—daring you to embrace the will, wisdom, and activities that amplify a facilitative leader.

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